從文化視角看 自然災害的對台灣原住民影響 自然災害的對台灣原住民影響
申請者 :洪湘雲 (Vavauni Ljaljegan) (Vavauni Ljaljegan)
出國目的地:澳洲 出國目的地:澳洲 -坎培拉 (國立澳洲大學 )

一、 計畫緣起 :

當回家的路不見了,我心真慌 當回家的路不見了,我心真慌 當回家的路不見了,我心真慌 了,那曾是一條暨溫 ,那曾是一條暨溫 馨又期待的路 。現在滿是傷痕, 心中的大樹重重的被拔起我找不到那個應該是屬於自己的自己,頓時失去了心中的歸屬戚。族人的眼淚、逝去的好友讓我看見原住民族面臨的脆弱性。我是一個在山林長大的孩子,真的很難想像回家的路不見了。雖然現在滿是傷痕,但還是會想辦法回家。沒有了它,就猶如失根的靈魂,沒了生命。記得小時候,媽媽開著車帶我回家,因為路上有一顆大樹硬生生的倒在回家的去路,就看到許多族人紛紛下車移開這個需要動用20人以上、花一個上午移開的大樹。他們不求什麼,只單單希望開一條回家的路。那時也讓我始終相信,只要留在部落,部落有人,我們就能重建,我們就能讓文化延續在回家的夢。因為八八風災的緣故,我開始有許多的機會留在部落服務,雖然不期待能夠做得有多好,但發現只有留在這個充滿情感的記憶場域,才能夠感受到生命的氣息。

我需要群眾的力量,當擔部落內外的轉譯人。快速的社會變遷,我們必需維持生態知識的多樣性,特別是生活在氣候異常的大洋洲子民,必要時候就要合作不論旅途或長或短,它都從我們找到自己的地方開始敘程,然後帶恢復力回家。

莫拉克風災雖重創我的故鄉,當下存在許多不同的考驗,同時也是一個契機。一個重拾與原本母體連接及重建生命中和諧的機會。「恢復的韌性」恐怕比「防範」還重要,身為島國的子民,我們無法避免未知的衝擊,只能在環境、社會不斷變遷之下,為文化建造更好的重開機程式。

二、 計畫目的

所謂的夢想,
要從你最喜歡做、做得做順手的方向開始尋找,
而這一定跟你的天賦,你與生俱來的本能有關。~~九把刀

1.帶恢復力回家:

以群島之眼觀察海洋民族在氣候變遷的脆弱性及恢復力。

2.介入恢復中的社群:

書寫海洋民族維持文化的故事及生態環境多樣性的心靈抒發。

3.南島民族與大洋洲區域的比較文化:

大洋洲與台灣的島有著非常相似的地理與歷史經驗,盼以一個文化區的概念在未來建立一個合作的群眾力量,化解雙邊衝突。

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三、 活動成果

 

 活動 地點 日期
1. Religion and Locality in the Chinese World Sparke HelmoreTheatre 2, Law Building 26-28 August1013
2. EMDV8009 Asia Pacific Environmental Conflicts:Causes and Solutions Lennox Room,Crawford Building 23 July – 30 October 2013
3. The University ofCanberra EnglishLanguage Institute

(UCELI)

The University ofCanberra Building 6 11 November2013- 14 February2014
4. Rethinking EnvironmentalFutures in Asia and thePacific Coombs LectureTheatre, Fellows Road,Australian National

University

14-15November2013

1. Religion and Locality in the Chinese World

This workshop will explore histories of how religion is created, transmitted, embodied and changed in specific locations in late imperial, modern and contemporary China and Taiwan. Taking not only temples, mosques, churches, schools, tea houses, festival sites, burial grounds and shrines as the locus of research, but also cities, neighbourhoods, counties and districts, it will explore the rich, and often overlooked, details that populate the lived experience of religious activity. Seeking to focus on interactions between place, text and individual agency, we aim to reflect on the layered and specific histories that develop as a consequence of this interplay. Through reducing the scale to a specific locale, phenomena such as religious change, conversion practice, and individual transformation can be reappraised.
Questions to consider may include: How do the particular circumstances of time and place shape religious experience? What is specific to a location that influences the nature of religious practice there? What religious power is embodied in a place? How is the power created or maintained? How are narratives created around a location? How are locations represented in oral and printed media? What is characteristic of the religious world in a particular place? How do the defining religious features of a locality originate?

Seeking to enhance scholarship about place and religion in China and Taiwan, we request work informed by microhistory and theories of the everyday that offer alternative perspectives on the sacred world. In doing this, we will explore the idea that religious experience is not homogenous across geography, and that even comparatively small distances can produce meaningful differences in institutions and practices. Through sharpening the focus of research to a county, district, neighbourhood, or particular numinous site we also hope to examine the relations between particular places and institutions of authority based locally or distantly.

活動照片:

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中華世界的宗教和地方性研討會守 會議現場

ANU 人類學系南島文化 蒐藏館 。

ANU 人類學系南島文化 蒐藏館 。

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Religion and Locality in the Chinese World 發表時所帶的牌子。

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ANU 學生帶領申請者與胡台麗教授(發表人之一 )做校園巡禮

參與活動心得:

 這次的研討會的第二個場次都在發表台灣原住民信仰活動,申請者這次也已發表人的身份和大會分享災後南島民族的心靈慰藉於傳傳統信仰和基督信仰的比較。相較於台灣的民間信仰,台下的研究人員反而較關心基督信仰如何進入台灣,還有八八風災的台灣人民如何透過外來的基督信仰得到心靈上的支持。此外,申請者也得到許多不同來自研究南島民族區塊的研究學者的建議,且有許多的回應和學生在台灣排灣族的研究不謀而合,如下:

(1)傳統信仰如果無法支持災後的心靈創傷,政府是否應該適當地從在地較熟悉的宗教活動來陪伴受創的族恢復的心靈上的壓力。

(2)因為早期殖民的關係,台灣的原住民族和其它太平島國上的南島民族都受都外來宗教的影響,特別是基督宗教的力量最為強大。在社會不斷的變遷之下,基督宗教的在地化及政策的導向,使得基督信仰已深深影響南島民族的生活慣習。所以,在災後重建的宗教支持除了少數未信仰基督宗教的在地人民,更不可以忽略督基督宗教在南島民族社會裡歷經的長年的宣教事工。

(3)信仰可為個人及團體的心靈支持,不管是在傳統信仰或是基督信仰有些都是在災後因此找到心靈慰藉出口的族人,信仰都是透過集體沸騰的宗教行為活動,得以找到宣洩的出口。相對的,個人的心靈安慰卻是少之又少,政府或相信心靈重為的團體要特別注意這樣少數的族群。盼以適當的方式及熟悉的朋友一起協助個人心靈在災後較為軟弱的支持。

2. EMDV8009 Asia Pacific Environmental Conflicts: Causes and
Solutions

Conflicts over access to, and control of, resources have been a constant in human history.  Rational policies to manage increasingly scarce resources often result in seemingly irrational reactions, many of which are rooted in specific cultural values and misunderstandings as much as varying stakeholder aims and objectives.  This course combines conflict and conflict resolution theory with region and resource specific case studies as they evolve over time to provide a broad-based toolkit for analysing the causes of resource conflicts and seeking feasible and enduring solutions.

Emphasis is placed on the fluidity of circumstances and changing mindsets over time.

授課老師: Paul D’Arcy

After graduating in Pacific and African history from Otago University, Dr D’Arcy studied at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa and worked as an archaeologist and for Television New Zealand, before completing my MA at Otago and PhD at ANU. He teaches courses in Pacific, environmental, and world history, as well as colonial race relations, and has also taught at Otago, Victoria University of Wellington and James Cook University in Queensland. His current research focuses on the problems and benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration, the history of conflict and conflict resolution in the Asia Pacific region, environmental conflict, and the rise of
Asian engagement with the Pacific Islands.

授課老師介紹:

Paul D’Arcy主要授課課程是關於太平洋環境、世界歷史,以及殖民地的種族關係。目前的研究主要集中在跨學科的合作,特別在亞太地區的衝突和解決衝突的歷史,太平洋海運和海軍史,環境史,土著的歷史,跨學科的方法,比較在亞太地區和澳大利亞的歷史與鄰國的關係的問題和利益。
此課堂的助理是來自加拿大的Sally(右下圖一身穿黃色衣服),同時也是ANU的博士生學生。主要研究的範圍是在亞洲及太平洋地區女性在政治上的參與及行動研究。

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亞洲太平洋環境衝突的 上課時情形

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參加 ANU 每年舉行的太平洋日(Pacific Day)

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薩摩亞青年舞蹈的交流

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參加南島民族碩博生的發表小型會議

參與活動心得:

以隨班附讀的方式一同和ANU的碩士生上課,不只學到許多來自太平洋環境上的議題,也領受到國外學生獨立思考積極的學習態度。當中有許來自己太平洋地區的南島民族青年,及亞洲國家政府的進修的政府官員,都讓學生大開眼界。他們透過ANU這樣的優渥的學習環境及頂尖的亞太學術殿堂,可以看出他們為自己的國家、島嶼及文化上的捍衛及進取。以下是申請者在透過此課堂學習及台灣南島民族議題比較之後,可以互相學習效力的地方。

海洋環境議題:(此議題適用於東漁業較為發達的東部南島民族)

台灣東部以龐大阿美族所屬的傳統領域,近年擾受外來觀光環境及海權上的爭議層出不窮。使得許多當地原住民族的主權受到世界各地的重視。然而相同的議題放遠到類似地位的太平洋族人,也一樣遭受到更大的迫壓。可是,在地的南島民族一樣可以透過在也自主性的力量和政府及外來海洋保護組織協調及抗爭。

此PPT主要在敘述Marshall群島的原住民族控制海洋保護區(MPA),期盼恢復近岸魚類種類的多元性。

此PPT主要在敘述Marshall群島的原住民族控制海洋保護區(MPA),期盼恢復近岸魚類種類的多元性。

此PPT主要在敘述巴布亞新幾內亞(PNG)Admiralty島嶼的Pere村莊以社區為基礎保護海洋的持續發展及漁業的收成。

此PPT主要在敘述巴布亞新幾內亞(PNG)Admiralty島嶼的Pere村莊以社區為基礎保護海洋的持續發展及漁業的收成。

Samoan耆老分享傳統的海洋知識與政府保護官員。

Samoan耆老分享傳統的海洋知識與政府保護官員。

夏威夷歐胡島的Kewalo海洋實驗室,針對太平洋島民的環境科學訓練,同時在地部落積極與學術合作、捍衛自身土地,了解部落目前的生態。

夏威夷歐胡島的Kewalo海洋實驗室,針對太平洋島民的環境科學訓練,同時在地部落積極與學術合作、捍衛自身土地,了解部落目前的生態。

此PPT主要敘述台灣的鯊魚鰭貿易也嚴重的影響到海洋的生態,當中的圖片是從鯊魚身取下來的鰭,然而被切割下來的每一片鰭,同是也造成每一個鯊魚的喪生。亦可得知台灣的鯊魚鰭貿易太平洋上是非常嚴重的不仁交易。

此PPT主要敘述台灣的鯊魚鰭貿易也嚴重的影響到海洋的生態,當中的圖片是從鯊魚身取下來的鰭,然而被切割下來的每一片鰭,同是也造成每一個鯊魚的喪生。亦可得知台灣的鯊魚鰭貿易太平洋上是非常嚴重的不仁交易。

此堂課是在由CIW的研究員Marcus針對廚餘的能源再造實驗及發明,是一項可效仿學習的成功案子。

此堂課是在由CIW的研究員Marcus針對廚餘的能源再造實驗及發明,是一項可效仿學習的成功案子。

(以上為上課部份講議內容)
The University of Canberra English Language Institute (UCELI):PREPARATION COURSES IELTS Preparation Evening Course Schedule 2013

Preparation classes for the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) throughout the year. In the preparation classes you can learn more about the test, get practice in both Academic and General IELTS contexts, and improve your IELTS results.

*坎培拉大學(UC)語後言課程是都是白天班的,這學期不開收晚上的課程,所以語言課程言後到 11/15 上課。已和 ANU 修課老師協調,先上完 EMDV8009 Asia Pacific Environmental Conflicts: Causes and Solutions 課程,才至語言學校上課。

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上課的片段

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上課當中遇到消防演習

原先是要參加IELTS的雅思課程,由語Canberrau University的今年沒有開放針對IELTS的語言課程,是由語言分段階級的課程。所以入學的第一天就入就做能力分班,以階梯性的做語言的進階能力訓練。測試完,申請者被分到Pre-Access (Upper Intermediate) Course,課程結束也有做進階課程的考試,不過經費及時間的考量,只報名10週的課程。

國外的語言學校和國內的語言補習班真的有很大的落差,著重於情境及互動的教學,學習英文似乎是一件很生活化的事情,也讓申請者認識許多不同的外國朋友。很可惜的是當中有許多的中國朋友,大多是要上移民語言考試的課程,都互相了解彼此都會說中文,所以使用中文的頻率也是很高,因為班上就有1/3 的中國了。

總而言之,這是語言訓練是ANU老師的建議,以提昇申請者的理解力及會話。使申請者參與ANU課程的學習的確有很大的幫助。

附件:

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3. Rethinking Environmental Futures in Asia and the Pacific Rethinking Environmental Futures in Asia and the Pacific
Coombs Lecture Theatre, Fellows Road, Australian National University

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參與活動心得: 從這次的會議了解現代科技化的商業利益的考量,會產生很高的環境成本,特別是對世界貧困和最脆弱的太平洋地后。往往都是首當其衝地方。其實不單單是申請研究的天然災難,還包括海洋生態的汙染及海洋資源過渡的取用,更嚴重的還包括糧食的危機等等,都是我們國家要不得不開始著手預防及準備面對的全球問題。

附件:

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四、 未來可學習的方向

(一)ANU確實是一個可以站在巨人的身上看世界的研究單位。首先澳洲這國家在太平洋地區設立許多教育衛生及外交支援的學習研究及政府組織。特別在二次大戰之後,就與太平洋地區的國家有著緊密的連繫。再者,ANU擁有一個來自各地南島民族的學生社團(Pacifica),同時擁有太平洋島國南島民族學生交流平台的地方。申請者在參訪的過程中也加入這一個學生社團及其網路交流平台(Y.A.R.N,Youth Awareness Resource Network),因為可以很快的從當中了解太平洋及澳洲地區的原住民族的新聞及亞太地區重大的學術議題。未來台灣原住民族學生可以連結此平台,很快的了解太平洋地區的時事及學術研究議題。

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(二)澳洲政府無論在太平洋的學術研究或外交支援都擁有南島民族國家豐富的資料。特別是澳洲政府近年來積極攏絡中國,而台灣在當地的模糊政治角度也被列入是大中華的一部份。而在ANU設立的中華全球研究中心(CIW)就是最好的證明,CIW提供最好的中華研究,而且是全方面的研究資源,可以提供台灣許多政治外交的資源及結合。更是促進社會管理系统的研究與發展及資訊交流,因應亞太國家在社會經濟及環境的快速變遷與衝擊,促進國際外交合作。

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(三)ANU提供南島民族豐富的歷史研究並提供南島民族交流的合作網絡平台,同時提升大眾對南島文化的認知與尊重。台灣過去在南島民族的研究有許多的學術的證據都是在ANU建構。不僅提供台灣原住民族在文化、語言、及學術上的依據,且給予台灣政府在太平洋的國際外交上多了一項更緊密結合。

(四)針對自然災害的研究,ANU藉由跨領域、跨族群的交流、對話與研討,將太平洋區南島原住民災後重建的經驗藉由學術之研究網絡與太平洋地區各國連結,並提供南島民族許同不同的災後支援。例如在去年底有5個太平洋國家在世界銀行(The World Bank)及日本政府的協助下成立災後重建資金的保險運用,可以幫忙每一個太平洋島國在自然災害後用最快的時間以自助性的方式協助南島民族災後的重建。而此政策不僅可以幫助處於自然災害最頻繁的太平洋島嶼國家,甚至身為島國的台灣可以以此為借鏡,及考慮加入自然災後的保險行列。

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五、 申請者對計畫主題的心得感想

Solutions for Natural Hazards affecting Indigenous People in the Pacific

You might think of Palm trees, bikini girls, white sandy beaches, and beautiful sunset. For many tourists, that is exactly the paradises for holiday. But now, for most indigenous people in the pacific, they are facing the extreme effects of climate change. All of their agriculture, coastal systems, ecosystems, water resources and economy, are at risk. Most indigenous people work hard to find the solution to resolve the problem. However, the relationship between the ecology knowledge of local social cultures, the policies of governments and resources of NGOs are important to find the best way and reconstructive solutions for these nations have limited resources and are vulnerable towards natural disaster.
Pacific people have their own local knowledge to solve the problem after natural disaster. Long time ago, the ecology knowledge of indigenous people has improved the evidence on how to confront natural disaster. For instance, there was a terrible tsunami disaster in Nias Island which is located between Indian and Pacific oceans. Most survivors were indigenous people, because the structure of their traditional houses was adapted to the natural environment. They were built and 20 meters long by 10 meters wide, and stand on crisscrossed stilts. Moreover, lots of stones are stacked underneath to keep them stable during earthquakes and huge winds. One of the indigenous people said, “They move when the earth moves. They have flexibility that modern houses lack.” Otherwise, the aboriginal people believed that devil spirit will bring the tsunami. The oral history told, before the huge wave comes, the sea recedes, and then the waters flood the earth, destroy it, and make it clean again. However, that is a reason why they know how to distinguish the wave, and we might learn from them and record the ecology knowledge of indigenous people for to protect ourselves.
Secondly, governments have to establish particular policies to confront the
natural hazards. The best policy is to communicate with local indigenous people, so their government can know what necessities they need, and avoid the second disaster which come from misunderstanding of   traditional social culture.  After that, governments have to be responsible to connect the international aid. For example, 14 developing nations in the Pacific Ocean wrapped up a United Nations-backed meeting on the 9th February in 2010 with a call to the global community to honour its commitments to help them weather the fallout from global economic crises and recent natural disasters. Later, Pacific islands will get resource from different NGOs or countries, and our government also has another duty to manage the unbalance resources, because it can avoid the unfair distribute good according to the severances of the disaster in different regions.
NGOs do help local indigenous people not only in cultural conservation but also post-disaster financial assistance. For instance, the World Bank helps 5 pacific island nations to be insured against natural disasters. And then, it helps indigenous people reconstruct quickly after natural disaster. Next, NGOs can supply the best resources such as flexible and suitable goods to meet the requirement local indigenous people requiring.
To sum up, the three inter-related intrusions into Pacific island people have their own different roles after natural disasters. Indigenous people know the ecology knowledge to deal with the climate change, government implements polices to adjust the abrupt hazards and the NGOs support main resources which indigenous people are really need. With the joints efforts of these three parties, the task of reconstruction after natural disasters will be more effective.

Reference

The Word Bank, 2013, ‘5 Pacific Island Nations to Be Insured Against Natural Disasters’, The Word Bank, viewed 22 November 2013, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/01/18/5-pacific-island-nation s-to-be-insured-against-natural-disasters
HPMG News,2014,’Pacific Warriors Declare: “We Are Not Drowning, We Are Fighting”’, HPMG News, viewed 13 January
2014,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/fenton-lutunatabua/pacific-warriors-declare-_ b_4598552.html

Fabio, P 2005, ‘Survival Tactics of Indigenous People’, University of Wisconsin, viewed 14 January 2014, http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/LEEPERFY/

UN News,2010, ’Pacific island nations at UN meeting call on world to fulfil aid commitments’ UN News, viewed 14 January 2014, http://www.un.org/apps/news/story/asp/www.
undoc.org/story.asp?NewsID=33719&Cr=pacific&Cr1= =#.UtdSW7_FUsI